Increasing fuel efficiencies is always debated on general engineering principals.
Engineering professionals general focus on the mathematical principals related to the design of the internal combustion engine, and note that there is insufficient unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust to create any significant increase in fuel efficiencies.
If there is no alteration to the general operating principles of the test engine the above statement generally proves true.
Engineers note that there are two ways the energy of combustion are taken out of an engine, Mechanical energy from the engine output shaft and heat.
Increases in fuel efficiency need to focus on lowering the engine energy loss through heat by working to increase;
1 The maximum efficiency of the burn
2 The transfer of the expanding gases to mechanical energy
3 Utilization of waste energy to
directly produce mechanical energy
Assist in the preparation of fuel for combustion by preparing the fuel for an efficient combustion
recovering the waste heat as stored energy that can be returned to the engine to produce mechanical power.
Further gains in fuel efficiency can be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the driven unit. In the example of an automobile this can be done by reducing the carried weight, lowering the rolling friction by utilizing high efficient lubricants, reducing rolling energy requirements by use of harder (or properly inflated tires, ) improving aerodynamics with body modifications and dams or spoilers to reduce the turbulence under the vehicle. For boats efficiencies can be gained with the use of surface tension reducing coating such as HDU.
HDU coatings on vehicles have not proven to be cost effective or show any reasonable ROI
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